How Urine Routine Examinations Are Carried Out In Labs?
Routine urine examination reveals a lot of things about the baby’s health. Doctors order this test to ensure the child’s organs are healthy and working fine. This test reveals the condition of the kidney, bladder, and other vital organs. Baby urine routine examination is important and this post will reveal many important facts about this test.
Why Do Doctors Check Urine Ketone Body?
There are three types of ketone bodies in the urine, which are acetoacetic acid, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyric acid. These ketone bodies are produced when the body starts burning fat due to a lack of glucose.
The production of ketone bodies remains quite small when the baby is healthy. The routine methods are not capable to detect them under normal circumstances. That’s why normal people have the analysis negative after the test.
However, ketone production increases due to the lack of glucose, hunger, and other reasons. Lipolysis and diabetic acidosis increase in such conditions and the body goes into the ketosis state. The tested person may get detected with a condition known as Ketonuria in such conditions.
The doctors do a qualitative analysis of ketone bodies in urine to detect pregnancy, diabetes, malnutrition, and other chronic diseases. It is an important test to ensure the tested person is healthy. If the test is positive, it indicates the following things:
- If the patient will get tested positive for diabetic ketoacidosis, he must get immediate medical attention. The examiner will suggest a quick treatment to improve the condition.
- The patient may suffer from diarrhea, severe vomiting, starvation, long-term malnutrition, and other such issues after exhausting exercise.
- Pregnant ladies can suffer from eclampsia, severe vomiting, and digestive issues due to increased ketone bodies in the urine.
What Values the Examiner Checks in Urinalysis?
The examiner will check the following values during the test:
- PH 5-6
- SG proportion 1.010一1.025
- NIT nitrite neg
- LEU white blood cell neg
- PRO protein neg
- GLU urine sugar normal
- UBG urinary bile element norm
- KET ketone body neg
- BIL bilirubin neg
- ERY red blood cell neg
All these values reveal whether the person is healthy or experiencing some sort of health issues. If the values are not normal, the doctor will provide medications to improve health. Medications won’t be necessary if all the values are normal.
What Causes the Increase And Decrease in Urine Specific Gravity?
Specific gravity is a well-known urinalysis parameter. It helps in diagnosing several renal diseases. Kidneys are responsible for filtering and removing many water-soluble molecules. They remove various toxicants, toxins, and metabolic waste. These wastes are also removed through urination.
Kidneys concentrate the urine to prevent excess loss of water and remove more toxins. The examiners check the concentration of the removed urine molecules to calculate the specific gravity. Continue reading to learn about the increase and decrease in urine specific gravity.
1. Increase in urine specific gravity:
Urine specific gravity increases in the following conditions:
- Acute glomerulonephritis
- High fever
- Heart failure
- Peripheral vascular disease
The patient experiences reduced urine output in one of the above-listed health conditions. Consequently, urine specific gravity can increase up to 1.4040! If the urine test performed, it might contain more glucose, protein, ketone bodies and other cells in certain conditions. These elements cause a rapid increase in the specific gravity of the tested urine.
2. The decrease in urine specific gravity:
If urine is tested positive for the decrease in urine specific gravity, it indicates the following conditions:
- Chronic glomerulonephritis
Both conditions can cause distal renal tubular concentration disease. Urine specific gravity will decrease below 1.010 in such conditions. Diabetes patients will urinate frequently and exert large quantities of urine. It can cause other health problems as well. Therefore, doctors take detailed tests to assess health conditions.
3. The role of urine testing labs
Modern labs are equipped with some cutting-edge devices to get the most accurate values of a test. Urine analyzers have been in use to assess the specific gravity of urine. It is determined by a gradient every 0.005.
The minimum specific gravity can be 1.000 and its maximum value would be 1.030. If the patient is suffering from diabetes, insipidus, or another such health issue, the value should be accurate. The specialist at the lab will measure urine specific gravity and compare results several times. He might also follow the non-urine analyzer method to get accurate results.
The lab would require more than 100mL urine for the test. Thus, it will be quite easy to make all the necessary tests and calculate urine specific gravity.
What Do Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, And Proteins In Urine Indicate?
You should consult with a doctor if red blood cells, white blood cells, and proteins are present in the urine. It can be due to fever and it’s also a symptom of urinary system diseases and kidney diseases.
Suppose the first urine test is not normal, the lab will carry out another urine test. If the test results are similar, you will have to consult with a nephrology specialist doctor. This specialist doctor may ask for further tests for a quick diagnosis of the health issue.
If there is polycythemia in the urine, doctors consider it a symptom of kidney and urinary system diseases. Many patients are diagnosed with IgA nephritis. It is a kidney disease that occurs due to the build-up of immunoglobulin A in the patient’s kidneys.
Leukocytosis is a symptom of urinary tract infection. The patients often experience pain while urinating in this disease, especially girls. The patient is suffering from Nephrotic if the excess amount of proteins detected in urine along with high edema. Such health issues should not be ignored to ensure the better health of the patient.
What Should You Do in Case of Hematuria?
If the urine looks normal with the naked eye and red blood cells are detected after checking it through a microscope, it is called Hematuria. Urine test labs can detect this condition through today’s cutting-edge urine analyzers.
Gross hematuria is when a person can see blood in the urine. Both gross and microscopic hematuria can be intermittent or continuous. Most of the patients have continuous microscopic hematuria.
Health experts consider it a symptom and not a disease. Many children show this symptom. The patient might not show the signs of edema, proteinuria, and hypertension. Their renal function tests might be normal.
Health experts have often diagnosed kids with hematuria and no other disease. This condition is divided into two categories, which are as follows:
- Renal hematuria
- Non-renal hematuria
Parents must take the child to the hospital for further examination in case of continuous hematuria. The pediatric doctor will find the cause of the issue and provide the best treatment to cure it. You will probably protect your kid against a major health issue related to kidneys.
What Precautions You Must Take When Collecting Sample For Urine Test?
It is possible to divide urine samples into different categories depending on the test objectives. Labs often use random urine because it is easy to collect. It can be affected due to the patient’s regular eating, moving, and sleeping routine.
Some labs require the patient to provide morning urine because it promises the best indication of the current health condition. It is quite easy to detect kidney disease through urine samples collected during the morning.
Collection method: Pick a perfectly cleaned and dried sample container from the lab. Fill it 2-5ml with urine. Girls must clean the vulva before collecting the sample. Bring urine samples to the lab and ask the lab assistant to produce the results as soon as possible.
Vulva must be cleaned if the urine sample is kept at room temperature. Suppose it is not possible to perform a urine test within a few hours, it should be kept in a cold environment. Thus, the test results will be quite accurate.
What Is Proteinuria?
If the urine sample contains more protein than the normal range, it is a sign of proteinuria. Healthy people also release proteins through the urine. However, it is quite difficult to detect. If a person exerts more than 150mg of urine protein every day, he needs medical attention. The doctor will order urine tests to diagnose the health issue. Test results will reveal what health issue is causing excess loss of protein through urine.
When the Blood Test Is Mandatory?
The urine test results may show the amount of white blood cells, red blood cells, and protein is more than the normal range. The doctor will order some more tests to ensure urine test results are reliable. The doctor will order a blood test to detect health issues. Once blood test results are available, the doctor may order B-ultrasound to confirm the health condition. The treatment will begin after the assessment of all the test results.
Doctors order urine test in many conditions. It gets too easy to detect kidney and urinary tract diseases through a urine test. Some other tests may be cried out to further assess the patient’s health. Thus, treatment begins and these tests continue until the patient is healthy again.